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How to plant and cultivate chrysanthemums?

How to plant and cultivate chrysanthemums?

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The characteristics of the chrysanthemum

  • Type: flower and flowering plant
  • Height: up to 1.50m
  • Flower color: red, white, pink, yellow, orange
  • Desired exposure: sunny
  • Type of soil: well drained
  • Interview : significant light requirement
  • Location: office, living room
  • Sanitizing: Yes
  • Diseases and pests: botrytis, aphids, ascochytosis, gray mold

Origins and characteristics of the chrysanthemum

Chrysanthemum, or chrysanthemum in Latin, is an annual or perennial plant, which belongs to the asteraceae family. In Greek, it means "golden flower".

The chrysanthemum is of Asian origin and more precisely of Korea, country in which it is also called "flower of autumn". The Japanese find meaning in the chrysanthemum which, for them, symbolizes friendship. In France, this plant is used to flower graves in the fall, especially during All Saints' Day.

It was introduced to Europe at the end of the 17th century, while it has been cultivated in Asian countries since Antiquity.

There are around 20 varieties of chrysanthemums. Its superb flower magnifies terraces and gardens. Its oval leaves have five lobes and are leathery. Its flowers are of various bright colors and disappear completely in winter.

You can find the garden chrysanthemum, the hull chrysanthemum, the harvest chrysanthemum or wheat chrysanthemum or even the fruity chrysanthemum. The chrysanthemum flowers are very varied in shapes and colors: you can admire reds, yellows, oranges, violets, whites and many more.

The leaves and stems of chrysanthemums are toxic to rodents.

Chrysanthemum plantation

Planting a chrysanthemum is ideally done in April. Depending on the type of chrysanthemum, planting and sowing are done differently.

Perennial chrysanthemums:

  • Perennial bedding chrysanthemums are sown in February-March. For autumn daisies, sowing can be done between October and March.
  • In pots or in the ground, perennials are planted in spring. Choose a potting soil for flowering plants if you choose to plant in pots.

Annual chrysanthemums:

  • We sow them under cold chassis from February.
  • The plants must be transplanted in the ground during the month of May. Respect a spacing of 30cm between each plant.

The chrysanthemum prefers sunny places but be careful to protect young plants from sun burns. The soil must be well drained and calcareous to favor the good development of the flower.

Cultivation and maintenance of the chrysanthemum

Chrysanthemums require very little maintenance. But there are a few things to know in order to keep them healthy and to have beautiful flowers in your garden.

Watering of chrysanthemums is moderate. Do this only when the soil is dry.

To increase the growth of chrysanthemums, be sure to add organic fertilizer rich in potash each spring.

If you want to have a rather stocky and very flowered plant, you must cut back the young shoots on 10 to 15cm in June, when the tuft generally reaches 20 to 30cm in height. This will promote its branching and make the flowering more abundant.

Diseases and pests of chrysanthemum

When you water your chrysanthemums, it is imperative to take care not to wet the leaves, which could lead to the appearance of diseases such as rust.

The other enemy of chrysanthemums is the aphid, but also the red spider. So be sure to ventilate your plants well so that parasites do not pass from one plant to another.

Uses of Chrysanthemum

Appeared around the 15th century BC, chrysanthemum was then used by the Chinese (and still is) for medicinal purposes, in the form of infusions. Chrysanthemums also decorate western tombs and are also commonly called All Saints flowers.

This practice has spread in France and Belgium since the armistice of the First World War, a period in which chrysanthemums flowered the graves of fallen soldiers. It is this plant which was chosen for this use because it is a winter flower which resists frost very well.